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Geoengineering Comparisons

GESAMP (2019). “High level review of a wide range of proposed marine geoengineering techniques”. (Boyd, P.W. and Vivian, C.M.G., eds.). (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UN Environment/UNDP/ISA Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 98, 144 p.

Geoengineering Comparisons

Schneider, S. H. (2008). Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society366, 3843-3862.

Geoengineering Comparisons

Huesemann, M. H. (2008). Ocean fertilization and other climate change mitigation strategies: an overview. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 243-250.

Geoengineering Comparisons

Izrael, Y. A., Ryaboshapko, A. G., Petrov, N. N. (2009). Comparative analysis of geo-engineering approaches to climate stabilization. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology 34, 335-347.

Geoengineering Comparisons

Jones, I. S. F., Young, H. E. (1997). Engineering a large sustainable world fishery. Environmental Conservation 24, 99-104.

Geoengineering Comparisons

Lampitt, R. S. et al. (2008). Ocean fertilization: a potential means of geoengineering? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366, 3919-3945.

Carbon Credits

Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G., Cullen, J. J. (2001). Dis-crediting ocean fertilization. Science 294, 309-310.

Carbon Credits

Johnson, K. S., Karl, D. M. (2002). Is ocean fertilization credible or creditable? Science 296, 467-468.

Policy, Law and Conduct

American Geophysical Union (2022). AGU Climate Intervention Engagement: Leading the development of and ethical framework. AGU Whitepaper, 14pp.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Orbach, M. K. (2008). Cultural context of ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 235-242.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Strong, A.L., Cullen, J.J., Chisholm, S.W. (2009). Ocean fertilization: Reviewing the science, policy, and commercial activity and charting a new course forward. Oceanography 22(3): 236-261.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Freestone, D., Rayfuse, R. (2008). Ocean iron fertilization and international law. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 227–233

Policy, Law and Conduct

Urban, E., Haag, F. (2011). Organizations urge caution on ocean fertilization. Eos, 89:19, 179-179.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Scott, K. N. (2005). The Day After Tomorrow: Ocean CO2 Sequestration and the Future of Climate Change. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 18:45.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Schiermeijer, Q. (2003). The oresmen. Nature 421, 109-110.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Rohr, T. (2019). Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization: An Argument Against Commercialization but for Continued Research Amidst Lingering Uncertainty. Journal of Science Policy & Governance, Vol. 15, October 2019.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Rehdanz, K, R.L Tol, and P. Wetzel (2005). Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy. Energy Policy 34:18

Policy, Law and Conduct

Leinen, M. (2008). Building relationships between scientists and business in ocean iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 251-256.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Peterson, J. E. (1995). Can Algae Save Civilization? A Look at Technology, Law, and Policy Regarding Iron Fertilization of the Ocean to Counteract the Greenhouse Effect. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 61:48.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Mayo-Ramsay, J. (2012). Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: Ocean Fertilisation - The argument for and against. Lambert Academic Publishing, 288 pp.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Lin, A. C. (2013). International Legal Regimes & Principles Relevant to Geoengineering. In W. C. G. Burns & A. Strauss (Eds.), Climate Change Geoengineering: Legal, Political and Philosophical Perspectives (pp. 182-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Strong, A. et al. (2009). Ocean fertilization: time to move on. Nature 461, 347-348, doi:10.1038/461347a.

Policy, Law and Conduct

Buesseler, K. O., Doney, S.C., Karl, D.M., et al. (2008). Ocean Iron Fertilization: Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science 319, 162.

Nitrogen Fixation

Karl, D. M., Letelier, R. M. (2008). Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 257-268.

Nitrogen Fixation

Fennel, K. (2008). Widespread implementation of controlled upwelling in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre would counteract diazotrophic N2 fixation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 371, 301–303.

Nitrogen Fixation

Edwards, A. M., Platt, T., Sathyendranath, S. (2004). The high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regime of the ocean: limits on biomass and nitrate before and after iron enrichment. Ecological Modelling 171, 103–125.

Sulfide Production

Law, C. S. (2008). Predicting and monitoring the effects of large-scale ocean iron fertilization on marine trace gas emissions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 283-288.

Sulfide Production

Liss, P., Chuck, A., Bakker, D.C.E., Turner, S. (2005). Ocean fertilization with iron: effects on climate and air quality Tellus, 57B: 269-271.

Sulfide Production

Turner, S. M., Harvey, M.J., Law, C.S., Nightingale, P.D., Liss, P.S. (2004). Iron-induced changes in oceanic sulfur biogeochemistry. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020296.

Sulfide Production

Le Clainche, Y., Levasseur, M., Vézina, A. et al. (2006). Modeling analysis of the effect of iron enrichment on dimethyl sulfide dynamics in the NE Pacific (SERIES experiment) J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC002947.

Analytical Methods

Nishioka, J., Takeda, S., de Baar, H.J.W. et al. (2005). Changes in the concentration of iron in different size fractions during an iron enrichment experiment in the open Southern Ocean. Marine Chem. 95, 51-63.

Analytical Methods

Lannuzel, D. et al. (2005). Development of a sampling and flow injection analysis technique for iron determination in the sea ice environment. Anal. Chim. Acta 556, 476–483.

Analytical Methods

Abraham, E. R., Law, C.S., Boyd, P.W., Lavender, S.J., Maldonado, M.T., Bowie, A.R. (2000). Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom. Nature 407, 727-730.

Analytical Methods

Westberry, T.K., Behrenfeld, M.J., Milligan, A.J., Doney, S.C. (2013). Retrospective satellite ocean color analysis of purposeful and natural ocean iron fertilization Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 73, 1-16.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Gao, Y., Fan, S.-M., Sarmiento, J. L. (2003). Aeolian iron input to the ocean through precipitation scavenging: A modeling perspective and its implication for natural iron fertilization in the ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD002420.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Baker, A. R., Kelly, S.D., Biswas, K.F., Witt, M., Jickells, T.D. (2003). Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL018518.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Erickson, D. J., Hernandez, J.L., Ginoux, P., Gregg, W.W., McClain, C., Christian, C.. (2002). Atmospheric iron delivery and surface ocean biological activity in the Southern Ocean and Patagonian region Geophysical Research Letters, 30:12, 1609.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Sarthou, G. et al. (2003). Atmospheric iron deposition and sea-surface dissolved iron concentrations in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res I 50, 1339-1352.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Duce, R. A., Tindale, N. W. (1991). Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1715-1726.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Bonnet, S., Guieu, C. (2004). Dissolution of atmospheric iron in seawater. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018423.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Meskhidze, N., Chameides, W. L., Nenes, A. (2005). Dust and pollution: A recipe for enhanced ocean fertilization? J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005082.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Lunt, D. J., Valdes, P. J. (2002). Dust deposition and provenance at the Last Glacial Maximum and present day. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi:10.1029/2002GL015656.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Neuer, S. et al. (2004). Dust deposition pulses to the eastern subtropical North Atlantic gyre: Does ocean’s biogeochemistry respond? Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2004GB002228.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Bopp, L., Kohfeld, K. E., Le Quéré, C., Aumont, O. (2003). Dust impact on marine biota and atmospheric CO2 during glacial periods. Paleoceanography 18, doi:10.1029/2002PA000810.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Jickells, T. D. et al. (2005). Global iron connections between desert, dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate. Science 308, 67-71.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Edwards, R., Sedwick, P. (2001). Iron in East Antarctic snow: Implications for atmospheric iron deposition and algal production in Antarctic waters. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3907-3910.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Johnson, K. S. et al. (2003). Surface ocean-lower atmosphere interactions in the Northeast Pacific Ocean Gyre: Aerosols, iron, and the ecosystem response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17:16.

Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Baker, A. R., Jickells, T.D., Witt, M., Linge, K.L. (2006). Trends in the solubility of iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphorus in aerosol collected over the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Chem. 98, 43-58.

Modeling Studies

Yoshie, N., Fujii, M., Yamanaka, Y. (2005). Ecosystem changes after the SEEDS iron fertilization in the western North Pacific simulated by a one-dimensional ecosystem model. Prog. Oceanogr. 64, 283-306.

Modeling Studies

Gnanadesikan, A., Sarmiento, J. L., Slater, R. D. (2003). Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17, doi:10.1029/2002GB001940.

Modeling Studies

Gnanadesikan, A., Marinov, I. (2008). Export is not enough: nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 289-294.

Modeling Studies

Zeebe, R. E., Archer, D. (2005). Feasibility of ocean fertilization and its impact on future atmospheric CO2 levels. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL022449.

Modeling Studies

Oschlies, A. (2009). Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake. Biogeosciences 6, 1603-1613.

Modeling Studies

Arrigo, K. R., Tagliabue, A. (2005). Iron in the Ross Sea: 2. Impact of discrete iron addition strategies. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002568.

Modeling Studies

Veldhuis, M.J.W. (Ed.) (2005). Iron Resources and Oceanic Nutrients - Advancement of Global Environmental Simulations. Special Volume: Journal of Sea Research Journal of Sea Research 53, Issues 1-2, pp. 1-120

Modeling Studies

Xiu, P., Chai, F. (2010). Modeling the effects of size on patch dynamics of an inert tracer. Ocean Sci. 6, 1-9.

Modeling Studies

Letelier, R., Strutton, P., Karl, D. (2008). Physical and ecological uncertainties in the widespread implementation of controlled upwelling in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 371, 305–308.

Modeling Studies

Sarmiento, J. L., Orr, J. C. (1991). Three-dimensional simulations of the impact of Southern Ocean nutrient depletion on atmospheric CO2 and ocean chemistry. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1928-1950.

Modeling Studies

DA Siegel, T DeVries, SC Doney, T Bell (2021). Assessing the sequestration time scales of some ocean-based carbon dioxide reduction strategies Environmental Research Letters, 16, 104003

Modeling Studies

Schlitzer, R. (2002). Carbon export fluxes in the Southern Ocean: results from inverse modeling and comparison with satellite-based estimates. Deep-Sea Research II 49, 1623-1644.

Modeling Studies

Oschlies, A., Pahlow, M., Yool, A., Matear, R.J. (2010). Climate engineering by artificial ocean upwelling: Channelling the sorcerer's apprentice. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L04701.

Modeling Studies

Parekh, P., Follows, M. J., Boyle, E. A. (2005). Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002280.

Modeling Studies

Sarmiento, J. L., Dunne, J., Armstrong, R. A. (2004). Do we now understand the ocean’s biological pump? U.S. JGOFS News 12, 1-5.

Modeling Studies

Sarmiento, J. L. et al. (2004). High-latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity. Nature 427, 56-60.

Modeling Studies

Fujii, M., Chai, F. (2009). Influences of initial plankton biomass and mixed-layer depths on the outcome of iron-fertilization experiments. Deep-Sea Res. II 56, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.07.007.

Modeling Studies

Dutkiewicz, S., Follows, M., Parekh, P. (2005). Interactions of the iron and phosphorus cycles: A three-dimensional model study. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002342.

Modeling Studies

Tagliabue, A., Arrigo, K. R. (2005). Iron in the Ross Sea: 1. Impact on CO2 fluxes via variation in phytoplankton functional group and non-Redfield stoichiometry. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002531.

Modeling Studies

Pasquer, B. et al. (2005). Linking ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem structure and function: results of the complex SWAMCO-4 model. J. Sea Res. 53, 93-108.

Modeling Studies

Chai, F. et al. (2007). Modeling responses of diatom productivity and biogenic silica export to iron enrichment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002804.

Modeling Studies

Parekh, P., Follows, M. J., Boyle, E. (2004). Modeling the global ocean iron cycle. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002061.

Modeling Studies

Platt, T. et al. (2003). Nitrate supply and demand in the mixed layer of the ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 254, 3-9.

Modeling Studies

Fujii, M., Yoshie, N., Yamanaka, Y., Chai, F. (2005). Simulated biogeochemical responses to iron enrichments in three high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Prog. Oceanogr. 64, 307-324.

Modeling Studies

Ito, T. et al. (2005). The Antarctic Circumpolar Productivity Belt. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023021.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Aksnes, D. and Wassmann, P. (1993). Modeling the significance of zooplankton grazing for export production. Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 978–985

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Fiedler, P. C., Philbrick, V., Chavez, F. P. (1991). Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1834-1850.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Berger, W. H., Wefer, G. (1991). Productivity of the glacial ocean: Discussion of the iron hypothesis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1899-1918.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Kwon, E. et al. (2009). The impact of remineralization depth on the air-sea carbon balance. Nat. Geosci., 2, 630–635

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Lampitt, R. et al. (1990). What happens to zooplankton faecal pellets? Implications for vertical flux. Mar. Biol., 23, 15–23

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Buesseler, K. and Boyd, P. (2009). Shedding light on processes that control particle export and flux attenuation in the twilight zone of the open ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr., 54, 1210–1232

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Maiti, K. et al. (2013). An inverse relationship between production and export efficiency in the Southern Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1557–1561

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Cavan. E. et al. (2015). Attenuation of particulate organic carbon flux in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean, is controlled by zooplankton fecal pellets. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 821–830,

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Gervais, F., Riebesell, U., Gorbunov, M. Y. (2002). Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1324-1335.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Lavery, T. J. et al. (2010). Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Proc. Roy. Soc. Biol. 277, 3527-3531.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Winckler, G. et al. (2016). Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years. PNAS, 113, 6119–6124

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2007). Revisiting carbon flux through the ocean's twilight zone. Science 316, 567-570.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Cavan, E. et al. (2017). Role of zooplankton in determining the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Biogeosciences 14. 177-186.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Laws, E. et al. (2000). Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 14, 1231–1246

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Henson, S., Yool, A., Sanders, R. (2015). Variability in efficiency of particulate organic carbon export: A model study. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, 33–45

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Hilting, A. et al. (2008). Variations in the oceanic vertical carbon isotope gradient and their implications for the Paleocene-Eocene biological pump. Paleoceanography, 23, PA3222

Primary Production & Carbon Export

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Primary Production & Carbon Export

Le Moigne, F. et al. (2016). What causes the inverse relationship between primary production and export efficiency in the Southern Ocean? Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 4457–4466

Iron and Phytoplankton

Rohr, T., Harrison, C., Long, M., Gaube, P., Doney, S. (2020). Eddy-modified iron, light and phytoplankton cell division in the simulated southern ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:6, e2019GB006380.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Green, R. M., Geider, R. J., Falkowski, P. G. (1991). Effect of iron limitation on photosynthesis in a marine diatom. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1772-1782.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Timmermans, K. R., van der Wagt, B., de Baar, H. J. W. (2004). Growth rates, half-saturation constants, and silicate, nitrate, and phosphate depletion in relation to iron availability of four large, open-ocean diatoms from the Southern Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 2141-2151.

Iron and Phytoplankton

LaRoche, J., Breitbarth, E. (2005). Importance of the diazotrophs as a source of new nitrogen in the ocean. J. Sea Res. 53, 67-91.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Martin J. H., Fitzwater S. E. (1988). Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature 331, 341–343

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Rohr, T., Harrison, C., Long, M., Gaube, P., Doney, S. (2020). The simulated biological response to Southern Ocean eddies via biological rate modification and physical transport. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:6, e2019GB006385.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Tsuda, A. et al. (2003). A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic Pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom. Science 300, 958-961.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Schoemann, V. et al. (1998). Effects of phytoplankton blooms on the cycling of manganese and iron in coastal waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1427-1441.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Timmermans, K. R. et al. (2001). Growth rates of large and small Southern Ocean diatoms in relation to availability of iron in natural seawater. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 260-266.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Chavez, F. P. et al. (1991). Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1816-1833.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Trick, C. G. et al. (2010). Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091057910.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Lenes, J. M. et al. (2001). Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1261-1277.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Saito, H. et al. (2006). Nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics during the stationary and declining phases of a phytoplankton bloom induced by iron-enrichment in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 2168-2181.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Schoemann, V. et al. (2005). Phaeocystis blooms in the global ocean and their controlling mechanisms: A review. J. Sea Res. 53, 43-66.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Timmermans, K. R., van der Wagt, B., Veldhuis, M. J. W., de Baar, H. J. W. (2005). Physiological responses of three species of marine pico-phytoplankton to ammonium, phosphate, iron and light limitation. J. Sea Res. 53, 109-120.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Coale, K. H. et al. (2003). Phytoplankton growth and biological response to iron and zinc addition in the Ross Sea and Antarctic Circumpolar Current along 170°W. Deep-Sea Res. II 50, 635-653.

Iron and Phytoplankton

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Iron and Phytoplankton

Visser, F. et al. (2003). The role of the reactivity and content of iron of aerosol dust on growth rates of two Antarctic diatom species. J. Phycol. 39, 1085-1094.

Iron and Silica

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Iron and Silica

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Iron and Silica

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Iron and Silica

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Iron and Silica

Coale, K. H. et al. (2004). Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment: Carbon cycling in high- and low-Si waters. Science 304, 408-414.

Iron in Seawater

Martin J. H., Gordon R. M., Fitzwater S. E. (1990). Iron in Antarctic waters. Nature 345, 156–158

Iron in Seawater

Black, E.E., Kienast, S.S., Lemaitre, N., Lam, P.J., Anderson, R.F., Planquette, H., Planchon, F., Buesseler, K.O. (2020). Ironing out Fe residence time in the dynamic upper ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:9, e2020GB006592.

Iron in Seawater

O’Sullivan, D. W. et al. (1991). Measurement of Fe(II) in surface water of the equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1727-1741.

Iron in Seawater

Bowie, A. R. et al. (2006). A community-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater. Marine Chemistry 98, 81-99, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.07.002.

Iron in Seawater

Weber, T. (2020). Southern Ocean upwelling and the marine iron cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 47:20, e2020GL090737.

Iron Availability

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Iron Availability

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Iron Availability

Chen, M., Wang, W.-X., Guo, L. (2004). Phase partitioning and solubility of iron in natural seawater controlled by dissolved organic matter. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002160.

Iron Availability

Shaked, Y., Twining, B., Tagliabue, A., Maldonado, M.T. (2021). Probing the bioavailability of dissolved iron to marine eukaryotic phytoplankton using in situ single cell iron quotas. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35:8, e2021GB006979. DOI: 10.1029/2021GB006979

Iron Availability

Wells, M. L. (2003). The level of iron enrichment required to initiate diatom blooms in HNLC waters. Marine Chem. 82, 101-114.

Iron Availability

Borer, P. M. et al. (2005). Effect of siderophores on light-induced dissolution of colloidal iron(III) (hydr)oxides. Marine Chem. 93, 179-193.

Iron Availability

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Iron Availability

Boye, M. et al. (2005). Major deviations of iron complexation during 22 days of a mesoscale iron enrichment in the open Southern Ocean. Marine Chem. 96, 257-271.

Iron Availability

Chen, M. et al. (2003). Marine diatom uptake of iron bound with natural colloids of different origins. Marine Chem. 81, 177-189.

Iron Availability

Wu, J. et al. (2001). Soluble and colloidal iron in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific. Science293, 847-849.

Iron Biogeochemistry

Bucciarelli, E., Blain, S., Tréguer, P. (2001). Iron and manganese in the wake of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). Marine Chem. 73, 21-36.

Iron Biogeochemistry

Martin, J. H., Gordon, R. M., Fitzwater, S. E. (1991). The case for iron. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1793-1802.

Iron Biogeochemistry

de Baar, H. J. W., La Roche, J. (2003). Trace Metals in the Oceans: Evolution, Biology and Global Change. In Marine Science Frontiers for Europe. Wefer, G., Lamy, F., Mantoura, F. (eds), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 79-105.

Iron Biogeochemistry

Blain, S. et al. (2001). A biogeochemical study of the island mass effect in the context of the iron hypothesis: Kerguelen Islands, Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. I 48, 163-187.

Iron Biogeochemistry

de Baar, H. J. W. et al. (2008). Efficiency of carbon removal per added iron in ocean iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 269-282.

Iron Biogeochemistry

Wu, J., Boyle, E. (2002). Iron in the Sargasso Sea: Implications for the processes controlling dissolved Fe distribution in the ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001453.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Twining, B. S., Baines, S. B., Fisher, N. S. (2004). Element stoichiometries of individual plankton cells collected during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 2115-2128.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Boyd, P. W. (2004). Ironing out algal issues in the Southern Ocean. Science 304, 396-397.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Hiscock, W. T., Millero, F. J. (2005). Nutrient and carbon parameters during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Deep-Sea Res. I 52, 2086-2108.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Arrieta, J. M. et al. (2004). Response of bacterioplankton to iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 799-808.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Jackson, G. A., Waite, A. M., Boyd, P. W. (2005). Role of algal aggregation in vertical carbon export during SOIREE and in other low biomass environments. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023180.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Watson, A. J. (Eds.) (2001). Special Volume: The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE), Deep-Sea Research II 48, Issues 11-12, pp. 2425-2773.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Chisholm, S. W. (2000). Stirring times in the Southern Ocean. Nature 407, 685-687.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Oliver, J. L. et al. (2004). The heterotrophic bacterial response during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 2129-2140.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Rijkenberg, M. J. A. et al. (2005). The influence of UV irradiation on the photoreduction of iron in the Southern Ocean. Marine Chem. 93, 119-129.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Blain, S., Queguiner, B., Trull, T. (2008). The natural iron fertilization experiment KEOPS (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study): An overview. Deep-Sea Res. II 55, 559-565.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Boyd, P. W. (2002). The role of iron in the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean and equatorial Pacific: a comparison of in situ iron enrichments. Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 1803-1821.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Boyd, P. W., Watson, A.J., Law, C.S., et al. (2000). A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature 407, 695-702.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Watson, A. J., Bakker, D. C. E., Ridgwell, A. J., Boyd, P. W., Law, C. S. (2000). Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 730-733.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Bakker, D. C. E. et al. (2005). Iron and mixing affect biological carbon uptake in SOIREE and EisenEx, two Southern Ocean iron fertilisation experiments Deep-Sea Research I 52, 1001–1019.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Bozec, Y. et al. (2005). The CO2 system in a Redfield context during an iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean. Marine Chem. 95, 89-105.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Boyd, P. W., Jackson, G. A., Waite, A. M. (2002). Are mesoscale perturbation experiments in polar waters prone to physical artefacts? Evidence from algal aggregation modelling studies. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014210.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Cassar, N., Laws, E. A., Bidigare, R. R. (2004). Biocarbonate uptake by Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002116.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Twining, B. S., Baines, S. B., Fisher, N. S., Landry, M. R. (2004). Cellular iron contents of plankton during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Deep-Sea Res. I 51, 1827-1850.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Wingenter, O. W. et al. (2004). Changing concentrations of CO, CH4, C5H8, CH3Br, CH3I, and dimethyl sulfide during the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101, 8537-8541.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Blain, S. et al. (2007). Effect of natural iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean Nature 446, 1070-1074.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

van Oijen, T. et al. (2005). Enhanced carbohydrate production by Southern Ocean phytoplankton in response to in situ iron fertilization. Marine Chem. 93, 33-52.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Maldonado, M. T. et al. (2001). Iron uptake and physiological response of phytoplankton during a mesoscale Southern Ocean iron enrichment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46,1802-1808.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2005). Particle export during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 311-327.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Croot, P. L. et al. (2001). Retention of dissolved iron and Fe(II) in an iron induced Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3425-3428.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Yoon, J., et al. (2018). Reviews and syntheses: Ocean iron fertilization experiments – past, present, and future looking to a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean (KIFES) project. Biogeosciences 15. 5847-5889. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-5847-2018

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Bishop, J. K. B. et al. (2004). Robotic observations of enhanced carbon biomass and export at 55°S during SOFeX. Science 304, 417-420.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Croot, P. L. et al. (2005). Spatial and temporal distribution of Fe(II) and H2O2 during EisenEx, an open ocean mesoscale iron enrichment experiment. Marine Chem. 95, 65-88.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Buesseler, K.O. et al. (2004). The effects of iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean. Science 304, 414-417.

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Law, C. S. et al. (2003). Vertical eddy diffusion and nutrient supply to the surface mixed layer of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JC001604.

Experiments – Southern Ocean and Synthesis Papers

Buesseler, K. O., Boyd, P. W. (2003). Will Ocean Fertilization Work? Science 300, 67-68.

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Boyd, P. W. et al. (2005). The evolution and termination of iron-induced mesoscale bloom in the northeast subarctic Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 1872-1886.

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

(2009). Special Volume: Deep-Sea Research II 56:26 pp. 2731-2958

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Tsuda, A. (Ed.) (2005). Special Volume: Results from the Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) Prog. Oceanogr. 64, Issues 2-4, pp. 91-324

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Law, C. S. et al. (2006). Patch evolution and the biogeochemical impact of entrainment during an iron fertilisation experiment in the sub-Arctic Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 53, 2012-2033.

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Nishioka, J. et al. (2003). Size-fractionated iron distributions and iron-limitation processes in the subarctic NW Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016853.

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Boyd, P. W. et al. (2004). The decline and fate of an iron-induced subarctic phytoplankton bloom. Nature 428, 549-553.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Erdner, D. L., Anderson, D. M. (1999). Ferredoxin and flavodoxin as biochemical indicators of iron limitation during open-ocean iron enrichment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1609-1615.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Mann, E. L., Chisholm, S. W. (2000). Iron limits the cell division rate of Prochlorococcus in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 1067-1076.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Landry, M. R., Kirchman, D. L. (2002). Microbial community structure and variability in the tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 2669-2693.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Cullen, J. J. (1995). Status of the iron hypothesis after the Open-Ocean Enrichment Experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(7), 1336-1343.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Cochlan, W. P. (2001). The heterotrophic bacterial response during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment (IronEx II) in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 428-435.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Rue, E. L., Bruland, K. W. (1997). The role of organic complexation on ambient iron chemistry in the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the response of a mesoscale iron addition experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 901-910.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

(1998). Special Volume: Deep-Sea Research II 45, Issue 6 pp. 915-1150 (1998).

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Armstrong, R. A. (2003). A hybrid spectral representation of phytoplankton growth and zooplankton response: The “control rod” model of plankton interaction. Deep-Sea Research II 50, 2895-2916.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Rollwagen Bollens, G. C., Landry, M. R. (2000). Biological response to iron fertilization in the eastern equatorial Pacific (IronEx II). II. Mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, depth distribution and grazing. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 201, 43-56.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Cavender-Bares, K. K. et al. (1999). Differential response of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton to iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 237-246.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Bidigare, R. R. et al. (1999). Iron-stimulated changes in 13C fractionation and export by equatorial Pacific phytoplankton: Toward a paleogrowth rate proxy. Paleoceanography 14, 589-595.

Experiments – General

Watson, A., Liss, P., Duce, R. (1991). Design of a small-scale in situ iron fertilization experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1960-1965.

Experiments – General

Boyd, P.W., D.C.E. Bakker, and C. Chandler. (2012). A new database to explore the findings from large-scale ocean iron enrichment experiments. Oceanography 25(4):64–71

Experiments – General

Watson, A.J., Boyd, P. W., Turner, S., Jickells, T. D., Liss, P. (2008). Designing the next generation of ocean iron fertilization experiments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 303–309.

Experiments – General, Iron and Phytoplankton, Iron Availability, Nitrogen Fixation, and Synthesis Papers

Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.

Synthesis Papers

Boyd, P. W. (2008). Implications of large-scale iron fertilization of the oceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 213-218.

Synthesis Papers

Rohr, T. (2019). "Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization: An Argument Against Commercialization but for Continued Research Amidst Lingering Uncertainty". Journal of Science Policy & Governance, Vol. 15, October 2019.

Synthesis Papers

de Baar, H. J. W. et al. (2005). Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the iron age in the age of enlightenment. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002601.

Synthesis Papers

Boyd, P. W. et al. (2007). Mesoscale Iron Enrichment Experiments 1993-2005: Synthesis and Future Directions. Science 315, 612-617.

Unintended Consequences

Denman, K. L. (2008). Climate change, ocean processes, and iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 219-225.

Unintended Consequences

Fuhrman, J. A., Capone, D. G. (1991). Possible biogeochemical consequences of ocean fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1951-1959.

Unintended Consequences

Cullen, J. J., Boyd, P. W (2008). Predicting and verifying the intended and unintended consequences of large-scale ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 295-301.

Climate Mitigation

Peng, T-H., Broecker, W. S. (1991). Factors limiting the reduction of atmospheric CO2 by iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1919-1927.

Climate Mitigation

Mayo-Ramsay, J P (2008). Taking a precautionary approach to climate mitigation measures in the Southern Ocean Antarctic & Southern Ocean Law & Policy Occasional Papers 12, 33-53.

Climate Mitigation

Watson, A. J., Naveira Garabato, A. C. (2005). The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change. Tellus B 58, 73-87.

Climate Mitigation

Moore, J. K. et al. (2000). The Southern Ocean at the last glacial maximum: A strong sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 455-475

Climate Mitigation and Experiments – Southern Ocean

Ridgwell, A. J. (2000). Climatic effect of Southern Ocean Fe fertilization: Is the jury still out? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000120

Climate Mitigation and Experiments – Southern Ocean

Charette, M. A., Buesseler, K. O. (2000). Does iron fertilization lead to rapid carbon export in the Southern Ocean? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000069.

Climate Mitigation

Martinez-Garcia, A. et al. (2014). Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the Last Ice Age Science 343, 1347-1350, DOI: 10.1126/science.1246848