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Atmospheric Transport of Iron

Baker, A. R., Jickells, T.D., Witt, M., Linge, K.L. (2006). Trends in the solubility of iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphorus in aerosol collected over the Atlantic Ocean. Marine Chem. 98, 43-58.
Baker, A. R., Kelly, S.D., Biswas, K.F., Witt, M., Jickells, T.D. (2003). Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL018518.
Bonnet, S., Guieu, C. (2004). Dissolution of atmospheric iron in seawater. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018423.
Bopp, L., Kohfeld, K. E., Le Quéré, C., Aumont, O. (2003). Dust impact on marine biota and atmospheric CO2 during glacial periods. Paleoceanography 18, doi:10.1029/2002PA000810.
Duce, R. A., Tindale, N. W. (1991). Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1715-1726.
Erickson, D. J., Hernandez, J.L., Ginoux, P., Gregg, W.W., McClain, C., Christian, C.. (2002). Atmospheric iron delivery and surface ocean biological activity in the Southern Ocean and Patagonian region Geophysical Research Letters, 30:12, 1609.
Hamilton, D.S., Baker, A.R., Iwamoto, Y., Gasso, S., Bergas-Masso, E., Deytch, S., Dinaquet, J., Kondo, Y., Llort, J., Myriokefalitakis, S., Perron, M.M.G., Wegmann, A., Yoon, J.-E. (2023). An aerosol odyssey: Navigating nutrient flux changes to marine ecosystems Elementa, 11(1), 00037.
Lunt, D. J., Valdes, P. J. (2002). Dust deposition and provenance at the Last Glacial Maximum and present day. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, doi:10.1029/2002GL015656.
Meskhidze, N., Chameides, W. L., Nenes, A. (2005). Dust and pollution: A recipe for enhanced ocean fertilization? J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005082.
Neuer, S. et al. (2004). Dust deposition pulses to the eastern subtropical North Atlantic gyre: Does ocean’s biogeochemistry respond? Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2004GB002228.

Carbon Credits

Boyd, P.W., Bach, L., Holden, R., Turney, C. (2023). Redesign carbon-removal offsets to help the planet Nature, 620, 947-949.
Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G., Cullen, J. J. (2001). Dis-crediting ocean fertilization. Science 294, 309-310.
Johnson, K. S., Karl, D. M. (2002). Is ocean fertilization credible or creditable? Science 296, 467-468.

Climate Mitigation

Babakhani, P., Phenrat, T., Baalousha, M., Soratana, K., Peacock, C.L., Twining, B.S., Hochella Jr., M.F. (2022). Potential use of engineered nanoparticles in ocean fertilization for large-scale atmospheric carbon dioxide removal Nature Nanotechnology, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01226-w
Bach L.T., D.T. Ho, P.W. Boyd, M.D. Tyka (2023). Toward a consensus framework to evaluate air–sea CO2 equilibration for marine CO2 removal Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 8(5), 685–691
Bach, L.T., Boyd, P.W. (2021). Seeking natural analogs to fast-forward the assessment of marine CO2 removal PNAS Perspective, 118(40), e2106147118.
Buesseler, K., Chai, F., Karl, D., Ramakrishna, K., Satterfield, T., Siegel, D., Smith, S., Webb R., Wells, M., Yoon, J-E., ExOIS Group (2022). Ocean iron fertilization: assessing its potential as a climate solution Exploring Ocean Iron Solutions Group
Buesseler, K., Leinen, M., Ramakrishna, K. (2022). Removing carbon dioxide: first, do not harm Nature Correspondence, 606, 864.
Charette, M. A., Buesseler, K. O. (2000). Does iron fertilization lead to rapid carbon export in the Southern Ocean? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000069.
Fuhrman, J., C. Bergero, M. Weber, S. Monteith, F.M. Wang, A.F. Clarens, S.C. Doney, W. Shobe, and H. McJeon (2023). Diverse carbon dioxide removal approaches could reduce impacts on the energy–water–land system Nature Climate Change, 13, 341–350
Gattuso, J-P., Magnan, A.K., Bopp, L., Cheung, W.W.L., Duarte, C.M., Hinkel, J., Mcleod, E., Micheli, F., Oschlies, A., Williamson, P., Billé, R., Chalastani, V.I., Gates, R.D., Irisson, J-O., Middelburg, J.J., Pörtner, H-O., Rau, G.H. (2018). Ocean solutions to address climate change and its effects on marine ecosystems Frontiers in Marine Science
Hutchins, D.A., Boyd, P.W. (2016). Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle Nature Climate Change, 6, 1072-1079.
Martinez-Garcia, A. et al. (2014). Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the Last Ice Age Science 343, 1347-1350, DOI: 10.1126/science.1246848
Mayo-Ramsay, J P (2008). Taking a precautionary approach to climate mitigation measures in the Southern Ocean Antarctic & Southern Ocean Law & Policy Occasional Papers 12, 33-53.
Moore, J. K. et al. (2000). The Southern Ocean at the last glacial maximum: A strong sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 455-475
Palter, J. B., J. Cross, M. C. Long, P. A. Rafter, and C. E. Reimers (2023). The science we need to assess marine carbon dioxide removal Eos, 104
Peng, T-H., Broecker, W. S. (1991). Factors limiting the reduction of atmospheric CO2 by iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1919-1927.
Ridgwell, A. J. (2000). Climatic effect of Southern Ocean Fe fertilization: Is the jury still out? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000120
Watson, A. J., Naveira Garabato, A. C. (2005). The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change. Tellus B 58, 73-87.

Experiments – Equatorial Pacific (IronEx I & II)

Cavender-Bares, K. K. et al. (1999). Differential response of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton to iron fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 237-246.
Cullen, J. J. (1995). Status of the iron hypothesis after the Open-Ocean Enrichment Experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(7), 1336-1343.
Erdner, D. L., Anderson, D. M. (1999). Ferredoxin and flavodoxin as biochemical indicators of iron limitation during open-ocean iron enrichment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 1609-1615.
Landry, M. R., Kirchman, D. L. (2002). Microbial community structure and variability in the tropical Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. II 49, 2669-2693.
Mann, E. L., Chisholm, S. W. (2000). Iron limits the cell division rate of Prochlorococcus in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 1067-1076.
Martin, J.H., Coale, K.H., Johnson, K.S. et al. (1994). Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean Nature, 371, 123-129.
Rollwagen Bollens, G. C., Landry, M. R. (2000). Biological response to iron fertilization in the eastern equatorial Pacific (IronEx II). II. Mesozooplankton abundance, biomass, depth distribution and grazing. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 201, 43-56.

Experiments – General

Boyd, P.W., D.C.E. Bakker, and C. Chandler. (2012). A new database to explore the findings from large-scale ocean iron enrichment experiments. Oceanography 25(4):64–71
Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.
Kim, T.-J. (2020). Appropriate location and deployment method for successful iron fertilization Open Journal of Marine Science, 10, 149-172.
Watson, A., Liss, P., Duce, R. (1991). Design of a small-scale in situ iron fertilization experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1960-1965.
Watson, A.J., Boyd, P. W., Turner, S., Jickells, T. D., Liss, P. (2008). Designing the next generation of ocean iron fertilization experiments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 303–309.

Experiments – North Pacific (SEEDS I, II & SERIES)

Boyd, P. W. et al. (2004). The decline and fate of an iron-induced subarctic phytoplankton bloom. Nature 428, 549-553.
Nishioka, J. et al. (2003). Size-fractionated iron distributions and iron-limitation processes in the subarctic NW Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, doi:10.1029/2002GL016853.
Tsuda, A. (Ed.) (2005). Special Volume: Results from the Subarctic Pacific Iron Experiment for Ecosystem Dynamics Study (SEEDS) Prog. Oceanogr. 64, Issues 2-4, pp. 91-324

Experiments – Southern Ocean

Arrieta, J. M. et al. (2004). Response of bacterioplankton to iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 799-808.
Bishop, J. K. B. et al. (2004). Robotic observations of enhanced carbon biomass and export at 55°S during SOFeX. Science 304, 417-420.
Blain, S., Queguiner, B., Trull, T. (2008). The natural iron fertilization experiment KEOPS (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study): An overview. Deep-Sea Res. II 55, 559-565.
Boyd, P. W. (2004). Ironing out algal issues in the Southern Ocean. Science 304, 396-397.
Boyd, P. W., Jackson, G. A., Waite, A. M. (2002). Are mesoscale perturbation experiments in polar waters prone to physical artefacts? Evidence from algal aggregation modelling studies. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014210.
Boyd, P. W., Watson, A.J., Law, C.S., et al. (2000). A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature 407, 695-702.
Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2005). Particle export during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 311-327.
Buesseler, K. O., Boyd, P. W. (2003). Will Ocean Fertilization Work? Science 300, 67-68.
Buesseler, K.O. et al. (2004). The effects of iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean. Science 304, 414-417.
Cassar, N., Laws, E. A., Bidigare, R. R. (2004). Biocarbonate uptake by Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002116.
Charette, M. A., Buesseler, K. O. (2000). Does iron fertilization lead to rapid carbon export in the Southern Ocean? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000069.
Chisholm, S. W. (2000). Stirring times in the Southern Ocean. Nature 407, 685-687.
Croot, P. L. et al. (2001). Retention of dissolved iron and Fe(II) in an iron induced Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3425-3428.
Ellwood, M.J., Strzepek, R.F., Strutton, P.G., Trull, T.W., Fourquez, M., Boyd, P.W. (2020). Distinct iron cycling in a Southern Ocean eddy Nature Communications, 11, 825
Hiscock, W. T., Millero, F. J. (2005). Nutrient and carbon parameters during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Deep-Sea Res. I 52, 2086-2108.
Jackson, G. A., Waite, A. M., Boyd, P. W. (2005). Role of algal aggregation in vertical carbon export during SOIREE and in other low biomass environments. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023180.
Law, C. S. et al. (2003). Vertical eddy diffusion and nutrient supply to the surface mixed layer of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2002JC001604.
Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Watson, A. J. (Eds.) (2001). Special Volume: The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE), Deep-Sea Research II 48, Issues 11-12, pp. 2425-2773.
Oliver, J. L. et al. (2004). The heterotrophic bacterial response during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 2129-2140.
Ridgwell, A. J. (2000). Climatic effect of Southern Ocean Fe fertilization: Is the jury still out? Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 1, 2000GC000120
Rijkenberg, M. J. A. et al. (2005). The influence of UV irradiation on the photoreduction of iron in the Southern Ocean. Marine Chem. 93, 119-129.
Tagliabue, A., Sallée, J.-B., Bowie A.R., Lévy, M., Swart, S., Boyd, P.W. (2014). Iron-binding ligands and their role in the ocean biogeochemistry of iron Nature Geoscience, 7, 314-320.
Twining, B. S., Baines, S. B., Fisher, N. S. (2004). Element stoichiometries of individual plankton cells collected during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 2115-2128.
Twining, B. S., Baines, S. B., Fisher, N. S., Landry, M. R. (2004). Cellular iron contents of plankton during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Deep-Sea Res. I 51, 1827-1850.
Watson, A. J., Bakker, D. C. E., Ridgwell, A. J., Boyd, P. W., Law, C. S. (2000). Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 730-733.

Geoengineering Comparisons

GESAMP (2019). “High level review of a wide range of proposed marine geoengineering techniques”. (Boyd, P.W. and Vivian, C.M.G., eds.). (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UN Environment/UNDP/ISA Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 98, 144 p.
Huesemann, M. H. (2008). Ocean fertilization and other climate change mitigation strategies: an overview. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 243-250.
Izrael, Y. A., Ryaboshapko, A. G., Petrov, N. N. (2009). Comparative analysis of geo-engineering approaches to climate stabilization. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology 34, 335-347.
Jones, I. S. F., Young, H. E. (1997). Engineering a large sustainable world fishery. Environmental Conservation 24, 99-104.
Keating-Bitonti, C. (2022). Geoengineering: Ocean Iron Fertilization Congressional Research Service Report, R47172, 16 pp.
Lampitt, R. S. et al. (2008). Ocean fertilization: a potential means of geoengineering? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366, 3919-3945.
Schneider, S. H. (2008). Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society366, 3843-3862.

Iron and Phytoplankton

Abelmann, A. et al. (2006). Extensive phytoplankton blooms in the Atlantic sector of the glacial Southern Ocean. Paleoceanography 21, doi:10.1029/2005PA001199.
Barber, R. T., Chavez, F. P. (1991). Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1803-1815.
Chavez, F. P. et al. (1991). Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1816-1833.
Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.
Green, R. M., Geider, R. J., Falkowski, P. G. (1991). Effect of iron limitation on photosynthesis in a marine diatom. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1772-1782.
Helbling, E. W., Villafañe, V., Holm-Hansen, O. (1991). Effect of iron on productivity and size distribution of Antarctic phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1879-1885.
Hutchins, D.A., Boyd, P.W. (2016). Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle Nature Climate Change, 6, 1072-1079.
Jones, I. S. F. (2002). Primary Production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences(Earth & Planetary Sciences) 111, 209-213.
LaRoche, J., Breitbarth, E. (2005). Importance of the diazotrophs as a source of new nitrogen in the ocean. J. Sea Res. 53, 67-91.
Lenes, J. M. et al. (2001). Iron fertilization and the Trichodesmium response on the West Florida shelf. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1261-1277.
Martin J. H., Fitzwater S. E. (1988). Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the north-east Pacific subarctic. Nature 331, 341–343
Martin, J.H., Coale, K.H., Johnson, K.S. et al. (1994). Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean Nature, 371, 123-129.
Putland, J. N., Whitney, F. A., Crawford, D. W. (2004). Survey of bottom-up controls of Emiliania huxleyi in the Northeast Subarctic Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. I 51, 1793-1802.
Rohr, T., Harrison, C., Long, M., Gaube, P., Doney, S. (2020). Eddy-modified iron, light and phytoplankton cell division in the simulated southern ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:6, e2019GB006380.
Rohr, T., Harrison, C., Long, M., Gaube, P., Doney, S. (2020). The simulated biological response to Southern Ocean eddies via biological rate modification and physical transport. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:6, e2019GB006385.
Sarthou, G., Timmermans, K.R., Blain, S., Tréguer, P. (2005). Growth physiology and fate of diatoms in the ocean: A review. J. Sea Res. 53, 25-42.
Schoemann, V. et al. (1998). Effects of phytoplankton blooms on the cycling of manganese and iron in coastal waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1427-1441.
Smetacek, V., Assmy, P., Henjes, J. (2004). The role of grazing in structuring Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. Antarctic Sci. 16, 541-558.
Timmermans, K. R., van der Wagt, B., Veldhuis, M. J. W., de Baar, H. J. W. (2005). Physiological responses of three species of marine pico-phytoplankton to ammonium, phosphate, iron and light limitation. J. Sea Res. 53, 109-120.
Trick, C. G. et al. (2010). Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091057910.
Veldhuis, M. J. W., Timmermans, K. R., Croot, P. L., van der Wagt, B. (2005). Picophytoplankton; a comparative study of their biochemical composition and photosynthetic properties. J. Sea Res. 53, 7-24.

Iron and Silica

Brzezinski, M. A., Jones, J. L., Demarest, M. S. (2005). Control of silica production by iron and silicic acid during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX). Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 810-824.
Hutchins, D. A., Bruland, K. W. (1998). Iron-limited diatom growth and Si:N uptake ratios in a coastal upwelling regime. Nature 393, 561-564.
Ingall, E.D., Diaz, J.M., Longo, A.F., Oakes, M., Finney, L., Vogt, S., Yager, P.L., Twining, B.S., Brandes, J.A. (2013). Role of biogenic silica in the removal of iron from the Antarctic seas Nature Communications, 4, 1981.

Iron Availability

Chen, M. et al. (2003). Marine diatom uptake of iron bound with natural colloids of different origins. Marine Chem. 81, 177-189.
Chen, M., Wang, W.-X., Guo, L. (2004). Phase partitioning and solubility of iron in natural seawater controlled by dissolved organic matter. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002160.
Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.
Hassler, C.S., Schoemann, V., Nichols, C.M., Butler, E.C.V., Boyd, P.W. (2010). Saccharides enhance iron bioavailability to Southern Ocean phytoplankton PNAS, 108(3), 1076-1081.
Hogle, S.L., Dupont, C.L., Hopkinson, B.M., King, A.L., Buck, K.N., Roe, K.L., Stuart, R.K., Allen, A.E., Mann, E.L., Johnson, Z.I., Barbeau, K.A. (2018). Pervasive iron limitation at subsurface chlorophyll maxima of the California Current PNAS, 115(52), 13300-133-05
Morel, F. M. M., Hudson, R. J. M., Price, N. M. (1991). Limitation of productivity by trace metals in the sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1742-1755.
Schoemann, V. et al. (2001). Effects of photosynthesis on the accumulation of Mn and Fe by Phaeocystis colonies. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1065-1076.
Shaked, Y., Twining, B., Tagliabue, A., Maldonado, M.T. (2021). Probing the bioavailability of dissolved iron to marine eukaryotic phytoplankton using in situ single cell iron quotas. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35:8, e2021GB006979. DOI: 10.1029/2021GB006979
Tagliabue, A., Bowie, A.R., DeVries T., Ellwood, M.J., Landing, W.M., Ohnemus, D.C., Twining, B.S., Boyd, P.W. (2019). The interplay between regeneration and scavenging fluxes drives ocean iron cycling Nature Communications, 10, 4960.

Iron Biogeochemistry

Babakhani, P., Phenrat, T., Baalousha, M., Soratana, K., Peacock, C.L., Twining, B.S., Hochella Jr., M.F. (2022). Potential use of engineered nanoparticles in ocean fertilization for large-scale atmospheric carbon dioxide removal Nature Nanotechnology, DOI: 10.1038/s41565-022-01226-w
Boyd, P.W., Ellwood, M.J. (2010). The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean Nature Geoscience
Bucciarelli, E., Blain, S., Tréguer, P. (2001). Iron and manganese in the wake of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). Marine Chem. 73, 21-36.
de Baar, H. J. W. et al. (2008). Efficiency of carbon removal per added iron in ocean iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 269-282.
de Baar, H. J. W., La Roche, J. (2003). Trace Metals in the Oceans: Evolution, Biology and Global Change. In Marine Science Frontiers for Europe. Wefer, G., Lamy, F., Mantoura, F. (eds), Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 79-105.
Hunter, K.A., Boyd, P.W. (2007). Iron-binding ligands and their role in the ocean biogeochemistry of iron Environmental Chemistry, 4(4), 221-232.
Martin, J. H., Gordon, R. M., Fitzwater, S. E. (1991). The case for iron. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1793-1802.
Moore, J.K., S.C. Doney, D.M. Glover, I.Y. Fung (2002). Iron cycling and nutrient limitation patterns in surface waters of the world ocean Deep Sea Research Part II, 49, 463–508
Tagliabue, A., Bowie, A.R., Boyd, P.W., Buck, K.N., Johnson, K.S., Saito, M.A. (2017). The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry Nature, 543, 51-59
Tagliabue, A., Bowie, A.R., DeVries T., Ellwood, M.J., Landing, W.M., Ohnemus, D.C., Twining, B.S., Boyd, P.W. (2019). The interplay between regeneration and scavenging fluxes drives ocean iron cycling Nature Communications, 10, 4960.
Tagliabue, A., Buck, K.N., Sofen, L.E., Twining, B.S., Aumont, O., Boyd, P.W., Capara, S., Homoky, W.B., Johnson, R., König, D., Ohnemus, D.C., Sohst, B., Sedwick, P. (2023). Authigenic mineral phases as a driver of the upper-ocean iron cycle Nature, 620, 104-109.
Tagliabue, A., K.N. Buck, L.E. Sofen, B.S. Twining, O. Aumont, et al. (2023). Authigenic mineral phases as a driver of the upper-ocean iron cycle Nature, 620(7972), 104-109
Wu, J., Boyle, E. (2002). Iron in the Sargasso Sea: Implications for the processes controlling dissolved Fe distribution in the ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16, doi:10.1029/2001GB001453.

Iron in Seawater

Black, E.E., Kienast, S.S., Lemaitre, N., Lam, P.J., Anderson, R.F., Planquette, H., Planchon, F., Buesseler, K.O. (2020). Ironing out Fe residence time in the dynamic upper ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 34:9, e2020GB006592.
Bowie, A. R. et al. (2006). A community-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater. Marine Chemistry 98, 81-99, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.07.002.
Boyd, P.W., Ellwood, M.J. (2010). The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean Nature Geoscience
Capara, S., Buck, K.N., Gerringa, L., Rijkenberg, M., Monticelli, D. (2016). A compilation of iron speciation data for open oceanic waters Frontiers Marine Science, 3, 221
Martin J. H., Gordon R. M., Fitzwater S. E. (1990). Iron in Antarctic waters. Nature 345, 156–158
O’Sullivan, D. W. et al. (1991). Measurement of Fe(II) in surface water of the equatorial Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1727-1741.
Tagliabue, A., Sallée, J.-B., Bowie A.R., Lévy, M., Swart, S., Boyd, P.W. (2014). Iron-binding ligands and their role in the ocean biogeochemistry of iron Nature Geoscience, 7, 314-320.
Weber, T. (2020). Southern Ocean upwelling and the marine iron cycle. Geophysical Research Letters, 47:20, e2020GL090737.

Methods and Monitoring

Abraham, E. R., Law, C.S., Boyd, P.W., Lavender, S.J., Maldonado, M.T., Bowie, A.R. (2000). Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom. Nature 407, 727-730.
Bach, L.T., Boyd, P.W. (2021). Seeking natural analogs to fast-forward the assessment of marine CO2 removal PNAS Perspective, 118(40), e2106147118.
Boyd, P.W., H. Claustre, L. Legendre, J.-P. Gattuso, P.-Y. Le Traon (2023). Operational monitoring of open-ocean carbon dioxide removal deployments: Detection, attribution, and determination of side effects In: Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Emerging Technologies for Understanding and Managing a Changing Ocean. E.S. Kappel, V. Cullen, M.J. Costello, et al. (Eds). Oceanography, 36(Sup 1), 2–10
Ho D.T., J.R. Ledwell, W.M Smethie Jr. (2008). Use of SF5CF3 for ocean tracer release experiments Geophysical Research Letters, 35(4)
Westberry, T.K., Behrenfeld, M.J., Milligan, A.J., Doney, S.C. (2013). Retrospective satellite ocean color analysis of purposeful and natural ocean iron fertilization Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 73, 1-16.

Modeling Studies

Arrigo, K. R., Tagliabue, A. (2005). Iron in the Ross Sea: 2. Impact of discrete iron addition strategies. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002568.
Chai, F. et al. (2007). Modeling responses of diatom productivity and biogenic silica export to iron enrichment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 21, doi:10.1029/2006GB002804.
DA Siegel, T DeVries, SC Doney, T Bell (2021). Assessing the sequestration time scales of some ocean-based carbon dioxide reduction strategies Environmental Research Letters, 16, 104003
Dutkiewicz, S., Follows, M., Parekh, P. (2005). Interactions of the iron and phosphorus cycles: A three-dimensional model study. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002342.
Fujii, M., Chai, F. (2009). Influences of initial plankton biomass and mixed-layer depths on the outcome of iron-fertilization experiments. Deep-Sea Res. II 56, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.07.007.
Fujii, M., Yoshie, N., Yamanaka, Y., Chai, F. (2005). Simulated biogeochemical responses to iron enrichments in three high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. Prog. Oceanogr. 64, 307-324.
Gnanadesikan, A., Marinov, I. (2008). Export is not enough: nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 289-294.
Gnanadesikan, A., Sarmiento, J. L., Slater, R. D. (2003). Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17, doi:10.1029/2002GB001940.
Henson, S.A., C. Laufkötter, S. Leung, S. Giering, H.I. Palevsky, E.L. Cavan (2022). Uncertain response of ocean biological carbon export in a changing world Nature Geoscience, 15, 248-254
Ito, T. et al. (2005). The Antarctic Circumpolar Productivity Belt. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023021.
Moore, J.K., S.C. Doney, K. Linday (2004). Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18(4), GB4028
Oschlies, A., Pahlow, M., Yool, A., Matear, R.J. (2010). Climate engineering by artificial ocean upwelling: Channelling the sorcerer's apprentice. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L04701.
Parekh, P., Follows, M. J., Boyle, E. (2004). Modeling the global ocean iron cycle. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi:10.1029/2003GB002061.
Parekh, P., Follows, M. J., Boyle, E. A. (2005). Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 19, doi:10.1029/2004GB002280.
Platt, T. et al. (2003). Nitrate supply and demand in the mixed layer of the ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 254, 3-9.
Sarmiento, J. L., Dunne, J., Armstrong, R. A. (2004). Do we now understand the ocean’s biological pump? U.S. JGOFS News 12, 1-5.
Tagliabue A., O. Aumont, R. DeAth, J.P. Dunne JP, S. Dutkiewicz, et al. (2016). How well do global ocean biogeochemistry models simulate dissolved iron distributions? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30(2), 149–174
Tagliabue, A., Arrigo, K. R. (2005). Iron in the Ross Sea: 1. Impact on CO2 fluxes via variation in phytoplankton functional group and non-Redfield stoichiometry. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002531.
Xiu, P., Chai, F. (2010). Modeling the effects of size on patch dynamics of an inert tracer. Ocean Sci. 6, 1-9.
Zeebe, R. E., Archer, D. (2005). Feasibility of ocean fertilization and its impact on future atmospheric CO2 levels. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL022449.

Natural Iron Fertilization

Hamme R.C., P.W. Webley, W.R. Crawford, F.A. Whitney, M.D. DeGrandpre, et al. (2010). Volcanic ash fuels anomalous plankton bloom in subarctic northeast Pacific . Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L19604
Wang, Y., H.-H. Chen, R. Tang, D. He, Z. Lee, H. Xue, M. Wells, E. Boss, F. Chai (2022). Australian fire nourishes ocean phytoplankton bloom Science of the Total Environment, 807(1), 150775

Nitrogen Fixation

Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.
Edwards, A. M., Platt, T., Sathyendranath, S. (2004). The high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regime of the ocean: limits on biomass and nitrate before and after iron enrichment. Ecological Modelling 171, 103–125.
Karl, D. M., Letelier, R. M. (2008). Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 257-268.

Policy, Law and Conduct

American Geophysical Union (2022). AGU Climate Intervention Engagement: Leading the development of and ethical framework. AGU Whitepaper, 14pp.
APPG (All-Party Paliamentary Group for the Ocean, UK) (2022). The Ocean: Turning the tide on climate change
Bach L.T., D.T. Ho, P.W. Boyd, M.D. Tyka (2023). Toward a consensus framework to evaluate air–sea CO2 equilibration for marine CO2 removal Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 8(5), 685–691
Broder, S.P., Haward, M. (2013). The international legal regimes governing ocean iron fertilization In: Regions, Institutions, and Law of the Sea, Chapter 12, pg 185-220.
Buesseler, K. O., Doney, S.C., Karl, D.M., et al. (2008). Ocean Iron Fertilization: Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science 319, 162.
Buesseler, K., Leinen, M., Ramakrishna, K. (2022). Removing carbon dioxide: first, do not harm Nature Correspondence, 606, 864.
Freestone, D., Rayfuse, R. (2008). Ocean iron fertilization and international law. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 227–233
Grant, N., A. Hawkes, S. Mittal, A. Gambhir (2021). The policy implications of an uncertain carbon dioxide removal potential Joule, 5(10), 2593-2605
Keating-Bitonti, C. (2022). Geoengineering: Ocean Iron Fertilization Congressional Research Service Report, R47172, 16 pp.
Leinen, M. (2008). Building relationships between scientists and business in ocean iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 251-256.
Lin, A. C. (2013). International Legal Regimes & Principles Relevant to Geoengineering. In W. C. G. Burns & A. Strauss (Eds.), Climate Change Geoengineering: Legal, Political and Philosophical Perspectives (pp. 182-199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Loomis, R., Cooley, S.R., Collins, J.R., Engler, S., Suatoni, L. (2022). A code of conduct is imperative for ocean carbon dioxide removal research Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, 872800.
Mayo-Ramsay, J. (2012). Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: Ocean Fertilisation - The argument for and against. Lambert Academic Publishing, 288 pp.
Ocean Conservancy (2023). Precautionary principles for ocean carbon dioxide removal research Ocean Conservancy
Orbach, M. K. (2008). Cultural context of ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 235-242.
Rehdanz, K, R.L Tol, and P. Wetzel (2005). Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy. Energy Policy 34:18
Sagarin, R., Dawson, M., Karl, D., Michael, A., Murray, B., Orbach, M., St. Clair, N. (2007). Iron fertilization in the ocean for climate mitigation: legal, economic, and environmental challenges Nicholas Institute, Duke University, NI WP 07-07 , 14 pp(Working Paper)
Schiermeijer, Q. (2003). The oresmen. Nature 421, 109-110.
Scott, K. N. (2005). The Day After Tomorrow: Ocean CO2 Sequestration and the Future of Climate Change. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 18:45.
Silverman-Roati, K., Webb, R.M., Gerrard, M. (2022). Removing carbon dioxide through ocean fertilization: Legal challenges and opportunities Columbia Law School, Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, 62 pp.
Strong, A. et al. (2009). Ocean fertilization: time to move on. Nature 461, 347-348, doi:10.1038/461347a.
Strong, A.L., Cullen, J.J., Chisholm, S.W. (2009). Ocean fertilization: Reviewing the science, policy, and commercial activity and charting a new course forward. Oceanography 22(3): 236-261.
Urban, E., Haag, F. (2011). Organizations urge caution on ocean fertilization. Eos, 89:19, 179-179.

Primary Production & Carbon Export

Aksnes, D. and Wassmann, P. (1993). Modeling the significance of zooplankton grazing for export production. Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 978–985
Berger, W. H., Wefer, G. (1991). Productivity of the glacial ocean: Discussion of the iron hypothesis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1899-1918.
Buesseler, K. O. et al. (2007). Revisiting carbon flux through the ocean's twilight zone. Science 316, 567-570.
Cavan, E. et al. (2017). Role of zooplankton in determining the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Biogeosciences 14. 177-186.
Fiedler, P. C., Philbrick, V., Chavez, F. P. (1991). Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1834-1850.
Gervais, F., Riebesell, U., Gorbunov, M. Y. (2002). Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1324-1335.
Henson, S., Yool, A., Sanders, R. (2015). Variability in efficiency of particulate organic carbon export: A model study. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, 33–45
Kwon, E. et al. (2009). The impact of remineralization depth on the air-sea carbon balance. Nat. Geosci., 2, 630–635
Lampitt, R. et al. (1990). What happens to zooplankton faecal pellets? Implications for vertical flux. Mar. Biol., 23, 15–23
Lavery, T. J. et al. (2010). Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Proc. Roy. Soc. Biol. 277, 3527-3531.
Laws, E. et al. (2000). Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 14, 1231–1246
Maiti, K. et al. (2013). An inverse relationship between production and export efficiency in the Southern Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1557–1561
Martin, J. et al. (1987). VERTEX: carbon cycling in the north east Pacific. Deep-Sea Res., 34, 267–285

Reports

APPG (All-Party Paliamentary Group for the Ocean, UK) (2022). The Ocean: Turning the tide on climate change
Keating-Bitonti, C. (2022). Geoengineering: Ocean Iron Fertilization Congressional Research Service Report, R47172, 16 pp.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Authors: Doney, S.C., Buck, H., Buesseler, K., Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Moran, K., Oschlies, A., Renforth, P., Roman, J., Sant, G.N., Siegel, D.A., Webb, R., White, A. (2021). A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration Washington, DC: The National Academies Press
WRI (Leblin, K., Northrop, E., McCormick, C., Bridgwater, E.) (2022). Towards responsible and informed ocean-based carbon dioxide removal: Research and governance priorities World Resources Institute, November 15, 2022, 102 pp.

Sulfide Production

Le Clainche, Y., Levasseur, M., Vézina, A. et al. (2006). Modeling analysis of the effect of iron enrichment on dimethyl sulfide dynamics in the NE Pacific (SERIES experiment) J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC002947.
Liss, P., Chuck, A., Bakker, D.C.E., Turner, S. (2005). Ocean fertilization with iron: effects on climate and air quality Tellus, 57B: 269-271.
Turner, S. M., Harvey, M.J., Law, C.S., Nightingale, P.D., Liss, P.S. (2004). Iron-induced changes in oceanic sulfur biogeochemistry. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2004GL020296.

Synthesis Papers

Boyd, P. W. (2008). Implications of large-scale iron fertilization of the oceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 213-218.
Buesseler, K. O., Boyd, P. W. (2003). Will Ocean Fertilization Work? Science 300, 67-68.
Coale, K.H., Wong, M. (2019). Ocean Iron Fertilization in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (3nd Ed), JH Steel (ed), Academic Press, pp 429-446.
de Baar, H. J. W. et al. (2005). Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments: From the iron age in the age of enlightenment. J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JC002601.
Gattuso, J-P., Magnan, A.K., Bopp, L., Cheung, W.W.L., Duarte, C.M., Hinkel, J., Mcleod, E., Micheli, F., Oschlies, A., Williamson, P., Billé, R., Chalastani, V.I., Gates, R.D., Irisson, J-O., Middelburg, J.J., Pörtner, H-O., Rau, G.H. (2018). Ocean solutions to address climate change and its effects on marine ecosystems Frontiers in Marine Science

Unintended Consequences

Cullen, J. J., Boyd, P. W (2008). Predicting and verifying the intended and unintended consequences of large-scale ocean fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364, 295-301.
Denman, K. L. (2008). Climate change, ocean processes, and iron fertilization. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 364: 219-225.
Fuhrman, J. A., Capone, D. G. (1991). Possible biogeochemical consequences of ocean fertilization. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36,1951-1959.
Oschlies, A., W. Koeve, W. Rickels, K. Rehdanz (2010). Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization Biogeosciences, 7(12), 4017-4035

White Papers

APPG (All-Party Paliamentary Group for the Ocean, UK) (2022). The Ocean: Turning the tide on climate change
Buesseler, K., Chai, F., Karl, D., Ramakrishna, K., Satterfield, T., Siegel, D., Smith, S., Webb R., Wells, M., Yoon, J-E., ExOIS Group (2022). Ocean iron fertilization: assessing its potential as a climate solution Exploring Ocean Iron Solutions Group
Sagarin, R., Dawson, M., Karl, D., Michael, A., Murray, B., Orbach, M., St. Clair, N. (2007). Iron fertilization in the ocean for climate mitigation: legal, economic, and environmental challenges Nicholas Institute, Duke University, NI WP 07-07 , 14 pp(Working Paper)
Silverman-Roati, K., Webb, R.M., Gerrard, M. (2022). Removing carbon dioxide through ocean fertilization: Legal challenges and opportunities Columbia Law School, Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, 62 pp.